Citation Machine - The Landmark Project

Citation Machine is an interactive Web tool designed to assist teachers and students in producing reference citations for crediting information from other people. You merely...

1. Click the type of resource you wish to cite,
2. Complete the Web form that appears with information from your resource, and
3. Click Make Citations to generate standard MLA & APA citations.



There are three basic ways to cite a reference - embedded notes, footnotes or endnotes.

Use the following guidelines.


1. Recent publications favour the use of embedded notes:

Lincoln's death did not draw any "nobler expression" of national grief   
            than Whitman's poem "O Captain! My Captain!" (Rossetti 143)

 2. Brief in-text parenthetical references have to be linked to a master list at the end of the essay. This list will include works cited and consulted. Use the heading Works Consulted. List all the sources alphabetically, without numbers.

  • Try to make a smooth transition between the text and the quotation, by introducing the quotation appropriately, for example by incorporating the author's name into your text.

e.g. As Flora Davis has noted, "..."(40)

  • When a quotation is greater than 2 lines or 2 sentences, indent 10 spaces (right and left) and use single spacing. Do not use quotation marks.
  • When omitting a full sentence or more from a quotation, use a period and 3 ellipses with spaces in between.

e.g. According to Wade, the horse Clever Hans "could apparently count by tapping out numbers with his hoof….Clever

Hans owes celebrity to his master's innocence"(1349).


  1. Footnotes should be numbered consecutively throughout the paper in Arabic numerals. Do not use asterisks or other symbols. In your text, place footnote numbers slightly above the line, following the quotation, thus: "It has been observed that imagery is a topic which belongs both to psychology and to literary I study."3
  1. Separate footnotes from the body of the text by a solid line (if keyed 20 spaces long).
  1. A footnote must appear at the foot of the same page on which it has been cited.
  1. Indent footnotes 1" if handwritten, 5 spaces if keyed.
  1. When using footnotes or endnotes always single space them and leave a space between each.
  1. n.p. means "no place" or "no publisher" or both. n.d. means "no date".
  1. Endnotes

The notes should appear on a separate page just before the bibliography; numbered and in the order they appear in the text of your essay.

More on Footnotes and Endnotes

See examples of MLA and APA styles.


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